Everything You Need to Know About Body Fat Percentage

What the #$%@ is body fat percentage?

What’s a good amount of body fat to aim for?

How the heck do I figure it out how much I have?

Body fat is an incredibly tricky subject – it’s tough to calculate, tough to track, and most people are way off in their estimates of what they think their body fat percentage is.

As Kanye West once famously declared, “that right there could drive a sane man berserk.”

Luckily, you’re reading Nerd Fitness, which means you’re smart, funny, good looking AND modest.

You also understand that this is one of those things that you should probably know something about.

And since we’re talking about a dry, relatively scientific subject here, you’ll be rewarded with cute animal videos at the end of each section so you don’t fall asleep or get bored. Because I’m nice like that 🙂  

A quick note: I bet you’re reading this because you’re interested in LOSING body fat – crazy guess, I know!

So, I went ahead and created a free resource that can help: it’s our 10-level Nerd Fitness Diet cheat sheet: each level tells you what to eat and when to level up so you can slowly adjust your diet and watch your body transform (like Optimus Prime).

Grab The Nerd Fitness Diet Cheat Sheet along with four other free guides (Paleo, Strength Training, Intermittent Fasting, Bodyweight Workout) when you sign up in the box below.

Fair warning: lots of half-naked people of all different levels of body fat in this article!

What is body fat percentage?

body fat tape measure

In its simplest form: body fat is the amount of fat in your body, compared to everything else.  Everything else includes your organs, muscles, bones, tendons, water, and so on.

Both men and women carry different amounts of body fat percentage due to…you know…being different.

A super ripped male body builder who is minimizing body fat percentage could have a percentage down as low as 3-4%, while a super ripped female bodybuilder who is minimizing body fat percentage would only get as low as 8-9%.

A male athlete could be in fantastic shape and have 10% body fat, while a women at comparable  level of athleticism and appearance might be at 18-20% body fat.

To take the comparison to the other end of the spectrum, an overweight male at 30% will look vastly different than an overweight woman at 30%.

Feel free to take a break with this video of a lion cub hanging out with a puppy and a rabbit.

What do these amounts look like?

Below, you’ll see images of what people look like with different amounts of body fat.


Male Body Fat Pictures and Percentages 3-10%

Male Body Fat Pictures and Percentages 15-30%


Female Body Fat Percentages 11-18%

Female Body Fat Percentages 20-35%

A quick note: your body fat percentage is just the amount of body fat  you have; it has nothing to do with the amount of muscle mass you have, which means you can have two people with the same amount of body fat percentage that look WAY different from each other.

Are you surprised about what you thought and what the actual percentages look like? If so, don’t worry about it – most people have no idea what their body fat percentage is, and will often over or underestimate it pretty dramatically.

We’ll get into what’s a good number to AIM for, and how to measure it next.

After you watch this video of a baby sea otter trying to sleep on mom:

What’s a good amount of body fat to have?

Here is the generally accepted chart for women and men when it comes to body fat percentage:



Essential fat













32% plus

26% plus

In what I’m sure is news to nobody, body fat is essential to survival – fat protects your internal organs, provides you with necessary energy stores in times of peril, and more.

“Essential fat” means the minimal amount of fat required for survival – Anything less than this amount would mostly likely result in organ failure, but even approaching this amount of body fat is dangerous.

It’s for this reason that bodybuilders, who can minimize their body fat to the “essential fat” level only do so when prepping for a show – during the rest of the year they maintain a higher body fat percentage so that they can stay healthy and function properly.

If you are looking to have that “ripped” look (dudes) and “toned” look (ugh we hate that word), you’ll want your body fat percentage to hover in the “athletes” section.

If you’re just looking to get healthy and look in the mirror with pride, you can aim for the fitness range.  Once you get into the upper ends of “acceptable” and “obese,” a decrease in body fat percentage would benefit your health.

Now, I’m going to GUESS you’re reading this article because you’re interested in reducing your bodyfat percentage.

If that sounds like you, and you want to skip the confusion, remove the guesswork, and just be told exactly what to eat and how to train your goals, check out The Nerd Fitness Academy, which has helped 35,000+ students reduce their body fat percentage, get strong, healthy, and happy.

Let’s get back to goal setting. For starters, you need to determine what’s an optimal goal for you:

  • If you are trying to look like Ryan Reynolds or Jessica Beil in Blade III, good luck! You’ll need to aim for a body fat percentage of 6-8% (men) or 13-15% (women). Note: your athletic/strength gaining performance will most likely suffer at this percentage, and can be really really challenging to maintain. Your call.
  • If you are interested in getting that coveted six pack, drop your body fat down to the 8-11% range for dudes and 15-17% range for women.
  • If you are an athlete and interested in optimal athletic performance, aim for a body fat percentage around 15% (men) or 20% (women).  NF team member Staci trains much better at 20% body fat than at 15% body fat.
  • If you are just interested in looking pretty good and feeling pretty good, anything less than 18% for men and anywhere in the 20-23% range for women should get you the “hey, lookin pretty good!” response from your friends.
  • Ladies: if you are concerned about menstruation or fertility, it has been said not to drop below 15% body fat.  Although I can’t find any studies that definitively refutes or proves this, it’s just something I wanted to point out so you can be aware.  Your results may vary!

Hey, you’re still awake! You’ve unlocked the “cute baby pigmy goat jumping around” video:

How do you calculate your body fat percentage?

tape measure and body fat caliper

This question I get asked above ALLLLLL others.  

There are seven main methods that you can use, each with varying levels of accuracy and cost: 

1) Take a Look – This might be my favorite method, although it requires a trained eye and isn’t exact.  By having an accurate list of pictures and comparing a picture of yourself, you can determine somewhat closely what your body fat percentage is. Make sure to note the difference in the two men, both at 10% body fat further down the page.

2) Body Fat Calipers – Pick up a set of calipers for $5. Pull the fat away from your muscles, pinch them with the caliper, take the measurements, and look at a chart to figure out your body fat percentage. Some recommend using one test site, some multiple.

In my experience, I have found that these calipers tend to slightly underestimate body fat percentage (mine tell me that i’m 9 or 10% when I’m really 12%, and Staci’s say she’s 17% when she’s more like 20%), but are surprisingly accurate considering how cheap they are. However, as long as you’re tracking the same area and under the same conditions, you can track overall trends in how the measurement changes to make sure you’re on the right path.

3) The measurement method – By taking measurements (like the US Navy measurement or the YMCA measurement), you can calculate your body fat percentage. I have found, as have others, that this method isn’t incredibly accurate as it can very easily overestimate your body fat. Considering it only takes a few points of data, this is not surprising.

4) Body fat scales and monitors  – An electrical current is sent through your body and uses “biometrical impedance analysis.”  I don’t really like this method, as I find the number that it spits out can be horribly inaccurate. Because they send an electrical current through your body, the amount of water you are carrying can drastically adjust this number too.

5) The Bod Pod – The method calculates your body fat percentage by using air displacement to measure your body mass, volume, and density.  This is also pretty darn accurate, but also pretty darn expensive at usually around $75 per session.  Find a bod pod location by putting in your location in the right hand column.

6) Water displacement – Although very accurate (within 1-3% percent), it’s expensive, tedious, and a huge pain in the butt.  If anybody has any experience with a water displacement test, please share your story in the comments.

7) DEXA Scanning– This is considered the most accurate method, as it actually takes a full dual X-ray of your body composition and gives you numbers. You can get this done at a health facility, and involves you lying on an X-Ray table for about 10 minutes. It’s typically expensive, anywhere from $50-150 per session depending on where you are located.

VERY IMPORTANT: If you are going to start testing your body fat percentage, do whatever you can to test yourself under the same conditions each and every time.

For example: every Monday morning, on an empty stomach, while drinking a single glass of water. This way, even if you’re not getting the correct body fat percentage (due to user error), you’ll at least get a consistent incorrect body fat percentage and can calculate how much you lost or if you are progressing in the right way.

“Steve, just tell me the best method!”

If you have the money, and you have a Bod Pod center close to you, then I’d say this would be the best combination of practicality and accuracy.

If you don’t have the money, then I would go with a simple body fat caliper, along with the “take a look” method.

Take a photo of yourself each week and compare the photos week to week to see if you can notice more definition in your muscles (which happens when you start to reduce your bodyfat percentage!).

Here’s the thing with body fat percentage: although it’s fun to know and fun to see it getting lower as you get leaner, methods to track it can often be inaccurate. Take multiple tests with your preferred methods and understand that even then it might be off by 1-3% in either direction. So, track overall TRENDS and go off how you look, and that will get you 95% of the way there.

It comes down to this: Look in the mirror: do you like how you look? Awesome.   Do you NOT like what you see?  Follow the advice in the next section.

Another section, another reward.  You’ve unlocked the “baby otter attacks a stuffed animal walrus” video:

What’s the best way to lower body fat percentage?

Alrighty! Let’s say you’re interested in dropping your body fat percentage, like my childhood friend Saint above.

Staci here also followed the principles of Nerd Fitness to get her results and significantly reduce her bodyfat percentage:

I’m sliiiiiightly biased, but both Saint and Staci, along with 35,000+ other students, reduced their bodyfat percentage by following the methods in the Nerd Fitness Academy.

As you’ll read below, the biggest piece of the puzzle to getting to a low body fat percentage is having the right nutritional strategy, the right mental attitude, a supportive network of people to help you, and a plan to follow.

We know how tough it can be to change your diet. If you’re not sure what to eat, or you’re sick of trying a diet only to give up a few weeks later, I got you covered.

It’s something I’m really proud of, and I know it’s helped a lot of people: our 10-level Nerd Fitness Diet Cheat Sheet. Pick the level you’re comfortable with, stick with it for at least 2 weeks, and then level up when ready and follow the next level! Simple.

Grab your cheat sheet free, along with 4 other free guides, when you sign up in the box below – I’m confident it can help you reduce your body fat percentage permanently.

I can’t teach you everything in a quick article, though I can absolutely give you some overall tips and tricks below to get you started.

Here are the Nerd Fitness methods we recommend to get down to a lower bodyfat percentage.  

Note: these are JUST suggestions, your results may vary!  

If you only want to drop a few percentage points (to a healthier weight), you can start with the advice at the top, and work your way down towards the bottom as you get lower and lower – the closer you get to single digits (dudes) or low double digits (ladies), the more strict you need to be with your diet and training.

1. Eat a caloric deficit – Although I believe there is more to it than just this, in order to lose weight, you need to be eating a caloric deficit – burning more calories than you consume consistently. If you are not strength training and still consuming lots of carbohydrates, you will most likely be losing muscle along with fat, which is not optimal but will help you lose body fat.

2. Lift heavy things – When you strength train with heavy objects (or with intense body weight training), you get stronger and keep the muscle mass that you already have.  On top of that, you also push your metabolism into an “afterburner” effect which burns extra calories even after you are done working out.

3. Incorporate Sprints into your off days – When you run sprints, you create a similar afterburner effect with strength training, meaning extra calories burned after the completion of your workout.

4. Eat less than 100 grams of carbohydrates per day – When you deprive your body of carbohydrates, it no longer has steady access to its preferred source of energy, sugar (which all carbs become once they’re consumed and processed by your body). It now has to pull from fat storage to fuel itself.

5. Follow the Paleo Diet – I am biased here, but this is the diet that I follow whenever I need to drop weight. It’s also the top level in the NF Academy with regards to effectiveness, but also difficulty to maintain.  I recently dropped from 13-14% down to 10-11% for a vacation. I had only followed this plan for three weeks (heavy strength training, Paleo Diet, and working out in a fasted state). As you start to decrease your bodyfat percentage, you need to be more and more diligent and disciplined. By the time you are aiming for ‘shredded’ look, you’re going to be eating almost exclusively protein and vegetables

6. Work out in a fasted state, consider intermittent fasting Although advanced techniques to get to super low body fat percentages are beyond the scope of this article, here’s another tactic if you want to drop the last few percentage points: strength train in a fasted state, and don’t consume your first meal of the day until AFTER your workout. I’ve been training in a fasted state for three years with zero issues on energy.

If you are looking for a more specific blueprint that helps with all of the above, and gives you a chance to look like Staci or Saint, check out the NF Academy and see if it can help you reach your goals.

Along with the above, keep reading Nerd Fitness articles, join our community, and start to implement the philosophies here and you’ll be on the right track.

The important thing to remember: this is NOT an overnight process. The best thing you can do is start treating yourself like a science experiment. Implement the suggestions above, track your bodyfat and see how it changes, and then course-correct and adjust based on results!

Also, here’s a video of a wombat. Because, wombats:

How is Body Fat Percent different from Body Mass Index?

weight scale
When you go to a doctor, they will most likely ONLY calculate your Body Mass Index (BMI).

Body Mass Index looks at your height and your weigh; based off this ratio, it tells you whether you are underweight, normal, overweight, or obese.

Seems pretty straightforward right? Obviously, as your weight increases disproportionately compared to your height, you are more likely to be overweight.  Notice I just said “more likely.”

Here’s why: Your BMI isn’t directly correlated to your body fat percentage – it only factors in your height and weight. It will give you the same reading if you’re made of 180 pounds of pure muscle, or 180 pounds of pure Cheetos.

For example, if I was six feet tall and 185 pounds witha body fat percentage of 10%, I would be put in the same “overweight” category as a guy who was six feet tall, 185 pounds, and a body fat percentage of 25%.

If two women have the same amount of body fat, and one tends to carry more water weight or have bigger bones than the other, one woman could be considered “overweight” while the other might be “average.”

For example: Lebron James is considered borderline obese when measured on the BMI scale, at a height of 6’8″ and 250 pounds.

That being said, I do believe BMI can be helpful if you are above 30% body fat, then both your BMI and your body fat percentage would tell you that weight loss should be your primary goal.

HOWEVER, as soon as you start to get serious about your body weight and training, then BMI quickly loses its appeal.

You’ve unlocked the final reward: “the hedgehog boat”:

What other questions do you have?

bunny rabbit on scale
And that concludes today’s lesson on body fat percentage, friend!

I do most of my work in coffee shops these days, so I hope you understand the amount of work and ridiculous number of embarrassing Google searches that had to happen in order to bring this post together.

Now, I know this is one of those super complicated topics, so I’d love to help any other way than I can. 

If you are fired up and want to start reducing your body fat percentage in a healthy, sustainable way, consider trying our 10 Level Nerd Fitness Diet – we’ll send you a cheat sheet telling you exactly how to change your diet each week so you don’t get overwhelmed!

Grab your NF Diet sheet along with four guides to help you reduce your bodyfat percentage when you sign up in the box below:

We’ve helped tens of thousands of people transform into real life superheroes.

Either way, continue to poke around Nerd FItness – all of our content is focused on helping you get results in a fun, non-condescending, supportive, and (most importantly) effective way.

Also, if you’re willing to put in the time, you WILL get the results you’re after.

Okay, time to watch more cute animal videos 🙂


PS: If you enjoyed this article style that mixes learning and humor, and you are looking for more guidance, I hope you decide to check out The Nerd Fitness Academy.

My team and I created a fun system with specific instructions, boss battles, workout plans, and blueprints to follow to help you reduce your belly fat percentage and reach the goals based on your situation.


photo sources: tape measure and caliper, tape measure, weight scale, bunny in scale

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  • Fat percentage is a much more important measure than total weight. Fat percentage is what really matters and tell us how healthy we are and how we look in the mirror. Using only total weight for measuring our fitness or weight loss achievements is a big mistake!! http://www.bellefem.com/diferencia-entre-perder-peso-y-perder-grasa/

  • Dan Otarola

    What a load of bologna many nutritionist degrees are. I have a friend who is a nutritionist who tells her client to eat 6 meals a day, and make sure not to skip meals so that you don’t go into “starvation mode.”

  • Shaderp

    This was actually pretty helpful. I have actually dropped from 34% to about 25%
    But I see myself everyday and don’t feel different. It’s nice to have a frame of reference for the numbers. Sometimes you just feel the same even after losing 20 lbs.

  • Serena Tsang

    I usually train in a fasted state in the morning, and while it’s not ideal for intervals on the track (I die fast) or if I really want to lift heavy, it’s fine for my usual 5-6 mile runs and bootcamp classes. Sure, it might feel slightly harder in the morning, but I’ve never keeled over. I generally take care to eat a lot of protein after these fasted workouts, and eat some carbs in the evening so I have a little glycogen in the morning.

  • Ankit Kumar

    I don’t do gym, but I do run, it’s burning my fat and helping me get ripped in a slow and steady way. I also use some of natural ways to burn body fat which I blog about here: http://remainhealthy.net

  • Jasmine Lewis

    Hi! Just a note on the water displacement technique and BMI! I am a human kinetics grad and am obsessed with exercise physiology and endurance training. While I was in school I used to spend 75% of my time in the physiology lab so I got to play with all of these fun methods!! Not a huge fan of the water displacement test. I’d say about 90 % of people struggle with this one, you have to fully immerse yourself in water and let ALL of the air out of your lungs. Movement of any sort is discouraged too so this one is tough! As for BMI…all I can say is I am 5’1 , 130 lbs. I am currently on the paleo diet. I run marathons for fun…..and I am borderline obese! ….hope this helps!

  • Madhuri Verma

    Thankyou so much…
    Its really helpfull for me…

  • Susana Elisa

    I am not quite sure to follow a paleo diet is healthy, we can definitely lose weight eating all the necessary nutrients that our body needs with a caloric deficit combine with exercise.

  • Shoba Nair

    I m 42yr lady, i hv big round tummy with thin hands & legs(nt matching with tummy), the tummy is big round and tight, like a real Matka. Is it fat??? coz people says fats seems bulgy, bt in my case it is tight tummy with very few stretch marks. How can i detect wht exctly it is??
    i hv done endoscopy test too bt the doctor told it is fat and nthg else. I m abit confussed. Cn u help.
    My height 4.5″ and weight 80kg(Constantly from last 5yrs)

  • Top 55 Lean-Body Foods to Boost Your Energy, Balance Hormones, and Lose Body Fat!

  • katiermack

    so right now im in the 24%! so not tragic but not great. i love running and running and maybe a little more running. i love sugar. i wish candy could be involved with every meal but its not. how much sugar intake should i be taking at max to lose weight? or tips and tricks to get my sugar in with other foods that might be better then the candy i love so much. im 5’8 and im tired of the 24% where i have been for years and really want the 18% area.

  • No doubt BMI is more or less bogus, but many Americans are 30% or more BF. I have you linked to my site. http://www.downtoearththinking.com/fitness-over-60-a-mindset-of-health.html

  • Shyam Shukla

    Quickly,easily and permanently get rid of stubborn body fat
    Learn the secret of unlocking your body’s fat burning hormones

  • Charles, Steven Adonis

    Thought this was a great discovery…helped several Reset their Metabolism, Turbocharge, Weight Loss and help Shrink ones Waist.

    Try it out and please let me know your thoughts. All the best


  • Mike Desmond

    thanks for the article it was so helpful. the next time you need a fat guy in underwear photo, just email me and i can send my pre diet photo

  • Camila Uribe

    Hi Steve, I´ve been reading all your articles. Paleo diet was interesting, but I have a question that regards on topic you did not mentioned at all. what about alcohol? how does your body process the intake of a beer or another spirit, as a carbohydrate I suppose. would it be “healthy” to “change” carbohydrates such as sweet potatoes for a glass of beer?

  • Andy

    Maybe you should get a new doctor. Adrenal fatigue is not currently an accepted medical diagnosis because it hasn’t been proven to be a real condition.

  • Ann Carr

    Does the body fat reductionapproach above work as well for a woman as a man?

  • Tanya Egeland

    Starvation and fasting are two totally different things so maybe YOU should do a little more research. Anon and Pascal know what they are talking about. The theory of the ‘starvation mode’ is a myth. Maybe you should listen to this video and it will clear up your misconceptions on fasting: https://www.dietdoctor.com/member/courses/fung-fasting#5

  • Dan Otarola

    I agree with you, you stupid bitch. If you re-read my comment, you will see that I was making fun of my nutritionist friend who thinks “starvation mode” is real and suggests eating 6 times a day, which is all bs.

  • J001

    I know it’s not a new article, but just wanted to say well done and thank you.

  • bizzybutfit

    super amount of information in one article.
    Thanks for the answers to all the questions regarding body fat.

  • mickel clark

    Great post! My hamstrings get tight after squatting. I’ll use some of your stretches to see if it eases them. Thanks very much,

  • Bill Stevens

    fuck Kanye west

  • Ashley

    The only thing Ive found annoying about looking at visual body fat percentage charts like that, as a women, is the fact that it all depends on how your fat is distributed. I believe I’m in the 25-26 range however I’m pear shaped so all of it sits on my hips, butt and thighs and my waist looks significantly smaller. So I’m always sitting there like wait, I don’t look like that, am I still ok or should I be worried still about my body fat percentage? I just need to get it measured instead of using these charts it looks like…

  • Ferran Llamas

    A section on how to increase the body fat index would be much appreciated!! 🙂

    Congratz for the very clarifying article!

  • Terry

    I’m 64 years old very active but want to get rid of large waist I measure 39 bust waist 34 hips 39 I weigh 11 stone1 height 5 2 any ideas

  • Nice article! I really like the attitude of improvising 😉

    But for those (including myself) who tend to get grumpy when hungry – why not bring some good food to a train/bus to enjoy the ride? I went to sardegnia in april and went to the local market before getting on the train – got some local grown veggies or some cheese (the best I’ve ever eaten!) from a local shepperd. Seriously, if you ever get there, try that cheese! *drooling* 😀

  • Constantin Miguel Chen

    I do want to point out that aerobic exercise at low intensity ( < 75% of MaxHR) tends to use more fat than glucose for energy. Basically, a low/restricted carb diet at a calorie deficit with low intensity jogging or walking is the best way to maximize fat loss.

  • random thoughts

    Thanks for a good and helpful post.

    However, a true nerd should know that “a women at comparable level of athleticism and appearance” should read “a woman.” Also, the actress in “Blade III” is Jessica Biel, not Jessica Beil. Accuracy in little things builds readers’ confidence about accuracy in big things.

  • Nikeimizhong

    Anal is for girly-men anyway :^)

  • Nikeimizhong

    Know how that feels….It happens to me when I do heavy squatting with empty stomach. Careful bro, it can lead to some serious gym accidents :/

  • Stealth Paladin

    wow the first four women on the percentage examples are disgusting. i had no idea low body fat could be that creepy for the ladies under 23%ish learn somethin every day i spose

  • Stealth Paladin

    paleo diet has been scientifically proven (repeatedly..) to be dangerous to humans beings as well as not having anything to do with the actual paleolithic diet of humans.

    paleolithic humans would get extreme indigestion from the ‘paleo diet’

  • Stealth Paladin

    nom that’s not true

  • Stealth Paladin

    paleo diet is dangerous, if you had benefits that just means you had a worse diet before.

  • Stealth Paladin

    lol gmos..

  • Stealth Paladin

    yah, runners high also known to be contributed to by increased circulation / brain oxygenation

  • Sheldon Bass

    At 5′ 8″ 202 lbs. my BMI is off the charts. But hey I can still bench one and a half times my weight and I’m almost 60 years old. Then again, I am concerned with my body fat percentage. Right now I may not want to know what it is, as I am still recovering from surgery 2 years ago, and I had become sedentary (had to) for the first time ever. It’s going to be a long hard climb back up at my age, but I am determined. One month into my comeback.

  • Chris Beckham

    So I started going to the gym about 4 months ago. I am 5’9 and now weigh between 165-170. I lost 31 pounds in those 4 months from cleaning up my diet completely and going to the gym 5 days a week. Now my question is how do I begin to have a shredded body? I have a pretty flat stomach but still no abs? My friend said I should start bulking then cut again to get abs but what do you guys think? Thanks for your time.

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  • Also gotta be careful not to pass out, lol. I went too hard once during a workout and got really light headed.

  • I think I saw a video somewhere that said Arnold likes getting a workout in in the morning before he eats. Anyone else heard that?

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  • Benjimon

    bro, what? You’ve clearly no idea what a proper paleo diet is and you’ve definitely never tried it. Paleo diet FIXED my indigestion problems 10 fold. I’m back to the steel stomach I used to have when I was a teenager. Don’t talk about shit you have no clue about, ugh.

  • Benjimon

    @stealthpaladin:disqus You are insufferable, nothing you say is true because I said so.

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  • Shelly

    I found a great app to do body scans – it’s called Body Volume (BVI). Check it out. You can scan yourself with either an iPhone or iPad and it’s super accurate. 🙂

  • Stealth Paladin